If you’re preparing to earn the Eagle-required First Aid merit badge, you’re in the right place! In this guide, I’ll be providing you with all of the answers that you’ll need to complete your merit badge worksheet. By learning proper first aid, you’ll have the skills necessary to respond to injuries and keep Scout buddies safe!
You’ve reached part 2 of my ultimate guide to the First Aid merit badge! If you’re new to ScoutSmarts, you should first check out part 1 for the answers to requirements 1-6 of the First Aid merit badge.
If you’ve just come over from part one, congratulations! You’re one third of the way done. Once you finish this badge, you’ll be equipped with the knowledge needed to effectively treat almost any type of injury! Give yourself a big pat on the back. 🙂
It’s time to get back into it! Take a minute to closely review and think through requirements 7-12 of the First Aid merit badge. Then, you’ll be ready to learn the answers to each requirement and earn this ultra-useful Eagle-required badge!
What Are The First Aid Merit Badge Answers?
- Do the following:
a. Describe the conditions that must exist before performing CPR on a person.
b. Demonstrate proper CPR technique using a training device approved by your counselor.
c. Explain the use of an automated external defibrillator (AED).
d. Demonstrate or simulate the proper use of an automated external defibrillator (AED), using an AED training device if available.
e. Identify the location of the AED at your school, place of worship, and troop meeting place, if one is present.
- Do the following:
a. Show the steps that need to be taken for someone who has a large open wound or cut that is not bleeding severely.
b. Show the steps that need to be taken for someone who has a large open wound or cut that is severely bleeding.
c. Explain when it is appropriate and not appropriate to use a tourniquet. List some of the benefits and dangers of the use of a tourniquet.
d. Demonstrate the application of a tourniquet without tightening it.
- Explain when a bee sting could be life-threatening and what action should be taken for prevention and for first aid.
- Describe the signs, symptoms, and potential complications of a fracture and dislocation.
- Demonstrate the proper procedures for handling and immobilizing suspected closed and open fractures or dislocations of the
d. Upper leg
e. Lower leg
- Describe the signs, symptoms, and possible complications and demonstrate care for someone with a suspected injury to the neck or back.
- Describe symptoms, proper first-aid procedures, and possible prevention measures for the following conditions:
b. Anaphylaxis/allergic reactions
c. Asthma attack
e. Sprains or strains
h. Burns—first, second, and third degree
k. Muscle cramps
l. Heat exhaustion
m. Heat stroke
n. Abdominal pain
o. Broken, chipped, or loosened tooth
- Do the following:
a. Describe the conditions under which an injured person should be moved.
b. If a sick or an injured person must be moved, tell how you would determine the best method. Demonstrate this method.
c. With helpers under your supervision, improvise a stretcher and move a presumably unconscious person.
- Describe the following:
a. The indications that someone might be a danger to themselves or others.
b. What action you should take if you suspect that someone might be a danger to themselves or others.
- Teach another Scout a first-aid skill selected by your counselor.
Do the following:
7a) Describe the conditions that must exist before performing CPR on a person.
7b) Demonstrate proper CPR technique using a training device approved by your counselor.
While performing chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), you run the risk of using the technique ineffectively and further injuring your victim. Therefore, to gain an understanding of proper CPR technique, you should first complete the CPR certification program before trying to perform this on another person.
It’s very important to note that you should ONLY perform CPR if the following two conditions are met:
- The victim is unresponsive (Ask, “Are you okay?”)
- They are not breathing (Ear over their mouth, propping chin up, to check for breathing)
(Important note as of 2020: The American Heart Association (AHA) now recommends that as soon as you see an emergency, immediately call for help. If, after checking with the victim (asking are you okay and feeling for air coming out of their lungs), they still appear non-responsive and unbreathing, begin CPR. The AHA recommends the following:
- Compressions – 30 compressions at 2 inches deep, 100 per minute.
- If the rescuer is trained in CPR, they should give 2 rescue breaths, otherwise, continue with compressions
- Rescue breaths begin by tilting the victim’s head back and lifting the chin slightly to open the airway, then pinching the nostrils closed and giving 2 normal breaths, watching the victim’s chest rise and fall.
- Continuing the cycle of continued compressions or 30 compressions and two rescue breaths.)
Watch the following video (1:56) for a quick visual walkthrough on adult CPR:
Because this is such an important topic, I actually asked a good friend of mine in the healthcare field to write a longer complete guide to CPR and AED use! Check it out for an interesting, in-depth explanation on how to save lives using these methods.
7c) Explain the use of an automated external defibrillator (AED).
7d) Demonstrate or simulate the proper use of an automated external defibrillator (AED), using an AED training device if available.
7e) Identify the location of the AED at your school, place of worship, and troop meeting place, if one is present.
An automated external defibrillator, or AED, is used to save lives during sudden cardiac arrest. Most AEDs are equipped with audio or visual instructions for use, but all AEDs generally work in the same way. The instructions are as follows:
- Turn on the AED and follow the prompts.
- Expose the victim’s bare chest, wiping it dry to later attach the AED patches.
- Attach the AED pads to the victim, plugging them into the connector if necessary.
- Making sure that no one is in contact with the victim, tell everyone to stand clear and press the ‘analyze’ button (this checks for heart rhythm).
- If the AED recommends resuscitation, ensure that no one is touching the person by saying “stand clear.” Once clear, press the “shock” button.
- Begin CPR after delivering the shock. If no shock is advised, begin CPR. Perform CPR while following the AED’s prompts. If they begin to breathe and show obvious signs of life, discontinue CPR and monitor for changes in condition.
After you’ve explained this to your counselor, you’ll need to demonstrate or simulate the use of an AED (depending on whether a training device is available). Check out the video below (4:48) for a walk-through. Then, you’ll finish up this requirement by locating an AED near you! 😀
Do the following:
8a) Show the steps that need to be taken for someone who has a large open wound or cut that is not bleeding severely.
To lower the risk of transmitting infections, if possible, wash your hands before coming into contact with any open wounds and wear a pair of sterile gloves. Remove any debris you can and wash the area around the wound with soap and clean water.
Then, apply steady pressure to the wound with a sterile bandage. If the wound is not bleeding severely, that’s a win! However, in the case of a large wound — one that is deep or more than a half-inch long — the victim should still seek medical attention as they may need further care.
Keep in mind that even after a wound stops bleeding, it can still become infected. In the following weeks, look for signs of pus or redness around the injury, which may indicate possible irritation. If the area becomes inflamed, sore, or discolored, seek proper medical care.
8b) Show the steps that need to be taken for someone who has a large open wound or cut that is severely bleeding.
If someone is severely bleeding, your first priority is to limit their loss of blood. After having someone call for help, evaluate the victim using the triage method. If they’re conscious, breathing, and in an environment out of further risk, begin work to stop the bleeding. This can be done in 5 steps:
- Clean the wound: If possible, remove any dirt or debris from the wound to prevent infection. Do not pull out anything embedded in the wound as this could cause much more bleeding.
- Apply steady pressure to the wound: using a sterile cloth or bandage, press into the wound with a steady pressure to stop the bleeding.
- Immobilize the wound: if blood soaks through the compress, do not remove it. Place another bandage over the first, and continue applying pressure. Eventually, the blood should clot and the bleeding should slow.
- Elevate the wound: by raising the wound above the level of the heart, gravity helps to halt the blood flow. Lay the victim down and have them raise the wound as high as possible.
- Assist the victim until help arrives: once their wound has been treated, your task is to keep the victim as comfortable as possible until emergency medical personnel arrive. Ensure that they are not too hot or too cold, and talk to them to keep them calm.
8c) Explain when it is appropriate and not appropriate to use a tourniquet. List some of the benefits and dangers of the use of a tourniquet.
A tourniquet should only be used on heavy, uncontrolled bleeding as a last resort. Tourniquets are tight wrappings, 2-4 inches above a wound, which restrict blood flow and effectively stop uncontrollable and potentially deadly bleeding.
However, it’s important to keep in mind that tourniquets can cause permanent damage, and often lead to the victim’s limb needing to be amputated. So, only use the tourniquet method when prepared to sacrifice a limb in order to save a life.
Now that you’re aware of the life-saving benefits of applying a tourniquet, here are some of the dangers that you should also be prepared for:
- Risk of nerve and tissue damage if left on for too long
- Risk of infection if the tourniquet is not applied or removed properly
- Risk of decreased air/blood flow to vital organs if the tourniquet is applied on one’s torso.
8d) Demonstrate the application of a tourniquet without tightening it.
Now that you know the appropriate uses and risks of a tourniquet, here’s are the steps you should know to properly apply one:
- Locate where the bleeding is most severe, and position the tourniquet directly above that area. The tourniquet should be applied as close to the injury as possible. However, take care to avoid placing the tourniquet over any joints, as this can increase the risk of nerve damage.
- Apply the tourniquet using the windlass mechanism (see the video below!). You can use clothing like pant legs or a bandana to improvise your tourniquet, but avoid using thin materials like shoelaces or a rope. Once applied, tighten your tourniquet until the bleeding stops. The tourniquet should be tight enough to stop the bleeding, but not so tight that it causes pain or numbness.
- Secure the windlass in place with a clip or other fastening device. Do not release or loosen the tourniquet once it is applied.
- Record the time the tourniquet was applied and note the victim’s vital signs.
- Seek immediate medical attention. The tourniquet should be left in place until the patient can receive professional medical care. Hurry, a tourniquet should be removed as quickly as possible once under proper medical care.
You’ll demonstrate these steps to your counselor…without hurting your buddy by tightening the tourniquet! The following video (2:00) will walk you through how to create a makeshift tourniquet:
(Keep in mind that using a tourniquet is dangerous, and will likely result in the loss of a limb.)
Remember, a tourniquet should only be used as a last resort, on a victim who is bleeding so uncontrollably that direct pressure won’t help. For instance, if someone were to lose their finger or have their leg cut to the bone, and they were in danger of bleeding out, using a tourniquet may be the appropriate response.
For most Scouts, I’d recommend not using a tourniquet unless you’ve had some extensive medical training and know for certain that there’s no other option. In 98% of cases, direct pressure and a quick emergency medical response from trained paramedics will save the victim, without creating unnecessary risks by applying a tourniquet. Stay safe out there!
9. Explain when a bee sting could be life-threatening and what action should be taken for prevention and for first aid.
In individuals with severe allergies to bee venom, just one sting could result in a fatal reaction called anaphylaxis. Anaphylactic reactions cause immediate and severe swelling in the neck and face, as well as difficulty breathing. This reaction can lead to suffocation, and prove fatal if left untreated.
Helpful Link: Here are some tips on avoiding bee stings!
Most people with severe allergies carry an EpiPen. When used by removing the blue safety cap and pressing the needle into the victim’s thigh, an EpiPen can counteract an anaphylactic reaction. However, the effect of an EpiPen is temporary, and the person must still quickly receive proper medical attention.
Remember, when holding an EpiPen, it’s “blue to the sky, orange to the thigh.” Check out this video (4:36) to see how an EpiPen is used!
It’s also recommended that you remove the bee stinger immediately, as this will likely prevent some of the remaining venom from being released into the victim’s body. To do this, simply scrape a fingernail across the stinger to pull it out, or if that doesn’t work, use tweezers.
10) Describe the signs, symptoms, and potential complications of a fracture and dislocation.
A fracture is defined as any sort of broken bone. A dislocation occurs when the ends of your bones are forced out of their normal position. Symptoms of these injuries are pretty similar — the most obvious one is pain! Swelling, bruising, visible deformity, and inability to move or use part of your body normally are also key signs.
People who sustain these injuries usually make a full recovery. If the damage is severe, they may need surgery or physical therapy to regain normal function. If you break a bone and develop a fever or the affected area feels hot, get to the emergency room right away — this can indicate a serious infection.
11) Demonstrate the proper procedures for handling and immobilizing suspected closed and open fractures or dislocations of the
d. Upper leg
e. Lower leg
How To Handle Different Types of Fractures and Dislocations
While fractures of the fingers, forearm, wrist, upper leg, lower leg, and ankle are all handled differently, the same principles apply:
- Immobilize the area so that the injured bone is not exposed to any more harm.
- This could be done by sandwiching a broken forearm or leg with two rigid boards.
- It could also be done by using a soft splint to wrap around a broken joint so that its kept steady.
- The areas above and below the injury should be immobilized.
- Do not attempt to reset the bones. The broken ends of bone could shift and damage blood vessels further.
- Apply a cold compress and seek proper medical attention immediately.
Now, to learn about each type of fracture, check out the following links. The article linked for “leg” covers both upper and lower leg fractures, but note that upper leg fractures are extremely serious. If you suspect a fracture in someone’s upper leg, hip, pelvis, head, neck, or back, call 911.
First aid for dislocations is very similar. Just like a bone break, you should NOT try to fix a dislocation yourself! Try to splint the joint if possible to keep it immobilized, use ice to reduce swelling, and get the injured person to a doctor as soon as possible.
12) Describe the signs, symptoms, and possible complications and demonstrate care for someone with a suspected injury to the neck or back.
A head, neck, or back injury can result in damage to the brain and spinal cord. As we noted above, it’s important to call 911 if you suspect a fracture in these areas.
These types of injuries can be life-threatening to the victim and are impossible to treat in the field. Watch the video (3:51) below for training on how to assess a head, neck, or back injury:
To keep the injury from becoming worse, make sure the victim remains absolutely still with their neck and back immobilized. Speak to them reassuringly, and ask them questions to gauge their mental state. Do not move them unless they are in immediate danger.
To identify a head, neck, or back injury, look for signs of swelling and broken bones in the head or spine. If the victim is conscious, examine them for signs of confusion, inability to remember basic facts, lightheadedness, slurred speech, or uneven people dilation.
If the victim exhibits any of the above symptoms or has fallen from a height above their own head, assume that a head, neck, or back injury has occurred and call 911.
Ready to move on to requirement 13) of the First Aid mb? Click here!
Congrats on Finishing Part 2 of the First Aid Merit Badge!
From CPR to fractures, we just answered a ton of important questions on your First Aid merit badge worksheet, better preparing you to use these essential skills if ever the need arises. Well done, you’re making terrific progress on your first aid journey! 🙂
Once you’re ready to continue on to part 3 of the First Aid merit badge (Requirements 13-16) click here!
Also, if you’re on the path to Eagle and could use a bit of extra support along the way, be sure to check out some of these other useful articles. You won’t regret it!
- The Easiest (And Hardest) Eagle-Required Merit Badges
- Advance Fast in Scouting (5 Rank-Up Keys To Earn Eagle Quickly)
- 50+ Incredible BSA Scout Facts (To Wow Your Troop)
- The 3 Easiest Merit Badges That You Can Earn
- Leadership in Scouting: A Scout’s Ultimate Guide
Definitely check out any of these articles later on if they interest you! Now, on to part 3 of my ultimate guide to the First Aid merit badge!